1.kvm部署
1.1 kvm安装

//关闭防火墙和selinux
[root@kvm ~]# systemctl disable --now firewalld.service 
Removed /etc/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/firewalld.service.
Removed /etc/systemd/system/dbus-org.fedoraproject.FirewallD1.service.
[root@kvm ~]# sed -i \'s/SELINUX=enforcing/SELINUX=disabled/g\' /etc/selinux/config 
[root@kvm ~]# reboot

//下载epel源和工具包
[root@kvm ~]# yum -y install epel-release vim wget net-tools unzip zip gcc gcc-c++

//验证CPU是否支持KVM;如果结果中有vmx(Intel)或svm(AMD)字样,就说明CPU的支持的
[root@kvm ~]# egrep -o \'vmx|svm\' /proc/cpuinfo

//安装kvm
[root@kvm ~]# yum -y install qemu-kvm qemu-kvm-tools qemu-img virt-manager libvirt libvirt-python libvirt-client virt-install virt-viewer bridge-utils libguestfs-tools

//桥接网卡,用br0来桥接ens160网卡
[root@kvm ~]# cd /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/
[root@kvm network-scripts]# cp ifcfg-ens33 ifcfg-br0
[root@kvm network-scripts]# cat ifcfg-br0 
TYPE=Bridge
DEVICE=br0
NM_CONTROLLED=no
BOOTPROTO=static
NAME=br0
ONBOOT=yes
IPADDR=192.168.237.131
NETMASK=255.255.255.0
GATEWAY=192.168.237.2
DNS1=114.114.114.114
DNS2=8.8.8.8
[root@kvm network-scripts]# cat ifcfg-ens33 
TYPE=Ethernet
BOOTPROTO=static
NAME=ens33
DEVICE=ens33
ONBOOT=yes
BRIDGE=br0
NM_CONTROLLED=no

//重启网络
[root@kvm ~]# systemctl restart network
[root@kvm ~]# ip a
1: lo: <LOOPBACK,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 65536 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN group default qlen 1000
link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00
inet 127.0.0.1/8 scope host lo
   valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
inet6 ::1/128 scope host 
   valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
2: ens33: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast master br0 state UP group default qlen 1000
link/ether 00:0c:29:7b:10:a5 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
inet6 fe80::20c:29ff:fe7b:10a5/64 scope link 
   valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
3: br0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc noqueue state UP group default qlen 1000
link/ether 00:0c:29:7b:10:a5 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
inet 192.168.237.131/24 brd 192.168.237.255 scope global br0
   valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
inet6 fe80::20c:29ff:fe7b:10a5/64 scope link 
   valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
4: virbr0: <NO-CARRIER,BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP> mtu 1500 qdisc noqueue state DOWN group default qlen 1000
link/ether 52:54:00:1c:33:d6 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
inet 192.168.122.1/24 brd 192.168.122.255 scope global virbr0
   valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
5: virbr0-nic: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast master virbr0 state DOWN group default qlen 1000
link/ether 52:54:00:1c:33:d6 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff

//启动服务
[root@kvm ~]# systemctl enable --now libvirtd

//验证安装结果
[root@kvm ~]# lsmod|grep kvm
kvm_intel 188740  0 
kvm   637289  1 kvm_intel
irqbypass  13503  1 kvm

//测试
[root@kvm ~]# virsh -c qemu:///system list
 Id名称 状态
----------------------------------------------------

[root@kvm ~]# virsh --version
4.5.0
[root@kvm ~]# virt-install --version
1.5.0
[root@kvm ~]# ln -s /usr/libexec/qemu-kvm /usr/bin/qemu-kvm
[root@kvm ~]# ll /usr/bin/qemu-kvm
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 21 10月 20 23:14 /usr/bin/qemu-kvm -> /usr/libexec/qemu-kvm

//查看网桥信息
[root@kvm ~]# brctl show
bridge name bridge id   STP enabled interfaces
br0 8000.000c297b10a5   no  ens33
virbr0  8000.5254001c33d6   yes virbr0-nic

1.2 kvm web管理界面安装

kvm 的 web 管理界面是由 webvirtmgr 程序提供的。

//安装依赖包
[root@kvm ~]# yum -y install git python-pip libvirt-python libxml2-python python-websockify supervisor nginx python-devel
//从github上下载webvirtmgr代码
[root@kvm ~]# cd /usr/local/src/
[root@kvm src]# git clone git://github.com/retspen/webvirtmgr.git
正克隆到 \'webvirtmgr\'...
remote: Enumerating objects: 5614, done.
remote: Total 5614 (delta 0), reused 0 (delta 0), pack-reused 5614
接收对象中: 100% (5614/5614), 2.97 MiB | 29.00 KiB/s, done.
处理 delta 中: 100% (3606/3606), done.
//安装webvirtmgr
[root@kvm src]# cd webvirtmgr/
[root@kvm webvirtmgr]# pip install -r requirements.txt 
Collecting django==1.5.5 (from -r requirements.txt (line 1))
  Downloading https://files.pythonhosted.org/packages/38/49/93511c5d3367b6b21fc2995a0e53399721afc15e4cd6eb57be879ae13ad4/Django-1.5.5.tar.gz (8.1MB)
100% |████████████████████████████████| 8.1MB 49kB/s 
......
//检查sqlite3是否安装
[root@kvm webvirtmgr]# python
Python 2.7.5 (default, Nov 16 2020, 22:23:17) 
[GCC 4.8.5 20150623 (Red Hat 4.8.5-44)] on linux2
Type \"help\", \"copyright\", \"credits\" or \"license\" for more information.
>>> import sqlite3
>>> exit()
//初始化账号信息
[root@kvm webvirtmgr]# python manage.py syncdb
WARNING:root:No local_settings file found.
Creating tables ...
Creating table auth_permission
Creating table auth_group_permissions
Creating table auth_group
Creating table auth_user_groups
Creating table auth_user_user_permissions
Creating table auth_user
Creating table django_content_type
Creating table django_session
Creating table django_site
Creating table servers_compute
Creating table instance_instance
Creating table create_flavor
You just installed Django\'s auth system, which means you don\'t have any superusers defined.
Would you like to create one now? (yes/no): yes
Username (leave blank to use \'root\'): admin
Email address: 123@qq.com
Password: 
Password (again): 
Superuser created successfully.
Installing custom SQL ...
Installing indexes ...
Installed 6 object(s) from 1 fixture(s)
//拷贝web网页至指定目录
[root@kvm webvirtmgr]# mkdir /var/www
[root@kvm webvirtmgr]# cp -r /usr/local/src/webvirtmgr /var/www/
[root@kvm webvirtmgr]# chown -R nginx.nginx /var/www/webvirtmgr/
//生成密钥
[root@kvm ~]# ssh-keygen -t rsa
Generating public/private rsa key pair.
Enter file in which to save the key (/root/.ssh/id_rsa): 
Created directory \'/root/.ssh\'.
Enter passphrase (empty for no passphrase): 
Enter same passphrase again: 
Your identification has been saved in /root/.ssh/id_rsa.
Your public key has been saved in /root/.ssh/id_rsa.pub.
The key fingerprint is:
SHA256:icyLAYmyxABKsogsIHmJqGjSby0ogFwf1p2zeiPwuxY root@kvm
The key\'s randomart image is:
+---[RSA 2048]----+
|O+ .  . . .  |
|/ooo o . +   |
|&*+ o .   o  |
|X+.. = . o   |
|=  o..* S|
|. . +o.E o   |
| . .... = .  |
|   o |
|  ...|
+----[SHA256]-----+
[root@kvm ~]# ssh-copy-id 192.168.237.131
/usr/bin/ssh-copy-id: INFO: Source of key(s) to be installed: \"/root/.ssh/id_rsa.pub\"
The authenticity of host \'192.168.237.131 (192.168.237.131)\' can\'t be established.
ECDSA key fingerprint is SHA256:/AR9dYUN0PN9LOHYWfHeUe5LgyczVMH9mYv9+2GcAbM.
ECDSA key fingerprint is MD5:30:f6:de:5a:7d:c2:08:b5:b7:31:61:4a:4e:dd:32:73.
Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes
/usr/bin/ssh-copy-id: INFO: attempting to log in with the new key(s), to filter out any that are already installed
/usr/bin/ssh-copy-id: INFO: 1 key(s) remain to be installed -- if you are prompted now it is to install the new keys
root@192.168.237.131\'s password: 
Number of key(s) added: 1
Now try logging into the machine, with:   \"ssh \'192.168.237.131\'\"
and check to make sure that only the key(s) you wanted were added.
//配置端口转发
[root@kvm ~]# ssh 192.168.237.131 -L localhost:8000:localhost:8000 -L localhost:6080:localhost:60
Last login: Wed Oct 20 23:12:00 2021 from 192.168.237.1
[root@kvm ~]# ss -anlt
State  Recv-Q Send-Q   Local Address:Port  Peer Address:Port  
LISTEN 0  128  127.0.0.1:6080 *:*  
LISTEN 0  128  127.0.0.1:8000 *:*  
LISTEN 0  128  *:111  *:*  
LISTEN 0  5192.168.122.1:53   *:*  
LISTEN 0  128  *:22   *:*  
LISTEN 0  100  127.0.0.1:25   *:*  
LISTEN 0  128  [::1]:6080  [::]:*  
LISTEN 0  128  [::1]:8000  [::]:*  
LISTEN 0  128   [::]:111   [::]:*  
LISTEN 0  128   [::]:22[::]:*  
LISTEN 0  100  [::1]:25[::]:*  
//配置nginx
[root@kvm ~]# cd /etc/nginx/
[root@kvm nginx]# ls
conf.dfastcgi_params  mime.types  scgi_params   win-utf
default.d fastcgi_params.default  mime.types.default  scgi_params.default
fastcgi.conf  koi-utf nginx.conf  uwsgi_params
fastcgi.conf.default  koi-win nginx.conf.default  uwsgi_params.default
[root@kvm nginx]# cp nginx.conf nginx.conf-bak	//备份
[root@kvm nginx]# cat nginx.conf
user nginx;
worker_processes auto;
error_log /var/log/nginx/error.log;
pid /run/nginx.pid;
include /usr/share/nginx/modules/*.conf;
events {
worker_connections 1024;
}
http {
log_format  main  \'$remote_addr - $remote_user [$time_local] \"$request\" \'
  \'$status $body_bytes_sent \"$http_referer\" \'
  \'\"$http_user_agent\" \"$http_x_forwarded_for\"\';
access_log  /var/log/nginx/access.log  main;
sendfileon;
tcp_nopush  on;
tcp_nodelay on;
keepalive_timeout   65;
types_hash_max_size 2048;
include /etc/nginx/mime.types;
default_typeapplication/octet-stream;
include /etc/nginx/conf.d/*.conf;
server {
listen   80;
server_name  localhost;
include /etc/nginx/default.d/*.conf;
location / {
root html;
index index.html index.htm;
}
error_page 404 /404.html;
location = /40x.html {
}
error_page 500 502 503 504 /50x.html;
location = /50x.html {
}
}
}
[root@kvm conf.d]# pwd
/etc/nginx/conf.d
[root@kvm conf.d]# vi webvirtmgr.conf
[root@kvm conf.d]# cat webvirtmgr.conf 
server {
listen 80 default_server;
server_name $hostname;
#access_log /var/log/nginx/webvirtmgr_access_log;
location /static/ {
root /var/www/webvirtmgr/webvirtmgr;
expires max;
}
location / {
proxy_pass http://127.0.0.1:8000;
proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-for $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
proxy_set_header Host $host:$server_port;
proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Proto $remote_addr;
proxy_connect_timeout 600;
proxy_read_timeout 600;
proxy_send_timeout 600;
client_max_body_size 1024M;
}
}
//确保bind绑定的是本机的8000端口
[root@kvm ~]# vim /var/www/webvirtmgr/conf/gunicorn.conf.py 
bind = \'0.0.0.0:8000\'		//修改此行
backlog = 2048
//启动nginx
[root@kvm ~]# systemctl enable --now nginx
Created symlink from /etc/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/nginx.service to /usr/lib/systemd/system/nginx.service.
[root@kvm ~]# ss -anlt
State  Recv-Q Send-Q   Local Address:Port  Peer Address:Port  
LISTEN 0  128  127.0.0.1:6080 *:*  
LISTEN 0  128  127.0.0.1:8000 *:*  
LISTEN 0  128  *:111  *:*  
LISTEN 0  128  *:80   *:*  
LISTEN 0  5192.168.122.1:53   *:*  
LISTEN 0  128  *:22   *:*  
LISTEN 0  100  127.0.0.1:25   *:*  
LISTEN 0  128  [::1]:6080  [::]:*  
LISTEN 0  128  [::1]:8000  [::]:*  
LISTEN 0  128   [::]:111   [::]:*  
LISTEN 0  128   [::]:22[::]:*  
LISTEN 0  100  [::1]:25[::]:*  
//设置supervisor
[root@kvm ~]# vim /etc/supervisord.conf 
#在最后添加下面的内容
[program:webvirtmgr]
command=/usr/bin/python2 /var/www/webvirtmgr/manage.py run_gunicorn -c /var/www/webvirtmgr/conf/gunicorn.conf.py
directory=/var/www/webvirtmgr
autostart=true
autorestart=true
logfile=/var/log/supervisor/webvirtmgr.log
log_stderr=true
user=nginx
[program:webvirtmgr-console]
command=/usr/bin/python2 /var/www/webvirtmgr/console/webvirtmgr-console
directory=/var/www/webvirtmgr
autostart=true
autorestart=true
stdout_logfile=/var/log/supervisor/webvirtmgr-console.log
redirect_stderr=true
user=nginx
//启动supervisor
[root@kvm ~]# systemctl enable --now supervisord
Created symlink from /etc/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/supervisord.service to /usr/lib/systemd/system/supervisord.service.
[root@kvm ~]# systemctl status supervisord
● supervisord.service - Process Monitoring and Control Daemon
   Loaded: loaded (/usr/lib/systemd/system/supervisord.service; enabled; vendor preset: disabled)
   Active: active (running) since 三 2021-10-20 23:53:33 CST; 12s ago
  Process: 46734 ExecStart=/usr/bin/supervisord -c /etc/supervisord.conf (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS)
 Main PID: 46737 (supervisord)
//配置nginx用户
[root@kvm ~]# su - nginx -s /bin/bash
-bash-4.2$ ssh-keygen -t rsa
Generating public/private rsa key pair.
Enter file in which to save the key (/var/lib/nginx/.ssh/id_rsa): 
Created directory \'/var/lib/nginx/.ssh\'.
Enter passphrase (empty for no passphrase): 
Enter same passphrase again: 
Your identification has been saved in /var/lib/nginx/.ssh/id_rsa.
Your public key has been saved in /var/lib/nginx/.ssh/id_rsa.pub.
The key fingerprint is:
SHA256:S46h+CYFvCGW+6z68PXZgbKNLLdPdiPD6LmzPOpYBwI nginx@kvm
The key\'s randomart image is:
+---[RSA 2048]----+
| |
| |
|E..  |
|oo+  |
|o.o+  . S|
| o.o.+ * .   |
|. =.* O *|
| =oX=X * o   |
|++**%B= .|
+----[SHA256]-----+
-bash-4.2$ touch ~/.ssh/config && echo -e \"StrictHostKeyChecking=no\\nUserKnownHostsFile=/dev/null\" >> ~/.ssh/config
-bash-4.2$ chmod 0600 ~/.ssh/config
-bash-4.2$ ssh-copy-id root@192.168.237.131
/bin/ssh-copy-id: INFO: Source of key(s) to be installed: \"/var/lib/nginx/.ssh/id_rsa.pub\"
/bin/ssh-copy-id: INFO: attempting to log in with the new key(s), to filter out any that are already installed
/bin/ssh-copy-id: INFO: 1 key(s) remain to be installed -- if you are prompted now it is to install the new keys
Warning: Permanently added \'192.168.237.131\' (ECDSA) to the list of known hosts.
root@192.168.237.131\'s password: 
Number of key(s) added: 1
Now try logging into the machine, with:   \"ssh \'root@192.168.237.131\'\"
and check to make sure that only the key(s) you wanted were added.
-bash-4.2$ exit
登出
[root@kvm ~]# vim /etc/polkit-1/localauthority/50-local.d/50-libvirt-remote-access.pkla
[Remote libvirt SSH access]
Identity=unix-user:root
Action=org.libvirt.unix.manage
ResultAny=yes
ResultInactive=yes
ResultActive=yes
[root@kvm ~]# chown -R root.root /etc/polkit-1/localauthority/50-local.d/50-libvirt-remote-access.pkla
[root@kvm ~]# systemctl restart nginx
[root@kvm ~]# systemctl restart libvirtd

1.3 kvm web界面管理

通过ip地址在浏览器上访问kvm

KVM虚拟化安装部署及管理教程插图

1.3.1 kvm连接管理

创建SSH连接:

KVM虚拟化安装部署及管理教程插图1

KVM虚拟化安装部署及管理教程插图2

KVM虚拟化安装部署及管理教程插图3

1.3.2 kvm存储管理

创建存储:

KVM虚拟化安装部署及管理教程插图4

KVM虚拟化安装部署及管理教程插图5

进入存储:

KVM虚拟化安装部署及管理教程插图6

KVM虚拟化安装部署及管理教程插图7

通过远程连接软件上传ISO镜像文件至存储目录/var/lib/libvirt/images/

[root@kvm ~]# ls /var/lib/libvirt/images/
CentOS-8.4.2105-x86_64-dvd1.iso

在 web 界面查看ISO镜像是否存在

KVM虚拟化安装部署及管理教程插图8

创建系统安装镜像

KVM虚拟化安装部署及管理教程插图9

KVM虚拟化安装部署及管理教程插图10

KVM虚拟化安装部署及管理教程插图11

1.3.3 kvm网络管理

添加桥接网络

KVM虚拟化安装部署及管理教程插图12

KVM虚拟化安装部署及管理教程插图13

KVM虚拟化安装部署及管理教程插图14

1.3.4 实例管理
实例(虚拟机)创建

KVM虚拟化安装部署及管理教程插图15

KVM虚拟化安装部署及管理教程插图16

KVM虚拟化安装部署及管理教程插图17

虚拟机插入光盘

KVM虚拟化安装部署及管理教程插图18

设置在 web 上访问虚拟机的密码

KVM虚拟化安装部署及管理教程插图19

启动虚拟机

KVM虚拟化安装部署及管理教程插图20

打开控制台

KVM虚拟化安装部署及管理教程插图21

安装虚拟机

KVM虚拟化安装部署及管理教程插图22

安装完成

KVM虚拟化安装部署及管理教程插图23

故障

web界面无法访问,命令行报错(accept: Too many open files)

对nginx进行配置
[root@kvm ~]# vim /etc/nginx/nginx.conf
user nginx;
worker_processes auto;
error_log /var/log/nginx/error.log;
pid /run/nginx.pid;
worker_rlimit_nofile 655350;		//添加此行
[root@kvm ~]# systemctl restart nginx.service 

对系统参数进行设置
[root@kvm ~]# vim /etc/security/limits.conf
# End of file			//添加下面两行
* soft nofile 655350		
* hard nofile 655350

重启虚拟机,就能成功访问
[root@kvm ~]# reboot

以上就是KVM虚拟化安装部署及管理教程的详细内容,更多关于KVM虚拟化安装部署及管理的资料请关注主题屋其它相关文章!

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